GARD™ is a genetic test for multiple genetic polymorphisms (variants) associated with increased risk of the most common form of dementia: late-onset Alzheimer’s disease. GARD™ combines genetic assessment of genetic polymorphism for several key genes: apoliprotein E (ApoE), interleukin-10 (IL-10) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) with additional genes being added as development progresses. Genetic variants associated with Alzheimer’s disease are found in important proteins such as ApoE which is involved in many different aspects of neuronal activity, survival and death. Other proteins critical in the neuro-degeneration include the cytokines which are involved in inflammation and their genetic polymorphism can contribute to either enhanced or decreased risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease depending on the type of polymorphism. Two multifunctional cytokines, IL-6 and IL-10 are very relevant. IL-6 is a potent pro-inflammatory cytokine while IL-10 acts to limit inflammation in the brain. Combination of genetic polymorphisms of ApoE, IL-10 and IL-6 as used in GARD™ test determines the grade of risk to Alzheimer’s disease and facilitate the choice of possible interventions.
The e4 allele of the APOE gene is the strongest genetic risk factor for late-onset Alzheimer’s disease; people with two ApoE4 copies have a 25-fold increased risk for developing the disease compared to ApoE3/ApoE3 carriers. Certain combinations of IL-10 and IL-6 polymorphisms can increase risk 10-fold.
APO-E, IL-6 AND IL-10 are independent risk factors. Moreover, with additional single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) being added, GARD™ is expected to have a very high predictive value.
Test detects multiple genetic polymorphisms including ApoE, IL-6 and IL-10, all associated with increased risk of late-onset Alzheimer’s Disease.
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Preliminary data from the currently ongoing clinical trial conducted by ImmunoClin provide confirmation of the current development strategy. This trial includes Alzheimer’s patients who experience different rate of disease progression as well as aged matched healthy controls. Knowing the risk is increasingly being recognized as a positive fact as the growing scientific and clinical evidence suggests that early interventions are most successful if the patients at risk can be identified.
In addition, even in the absence of effective drugs, changing life style and diet can be highly effective in preventing or alleviating many disorders.